1. Wh-questions words
Wh-questions words are used to ask questions.
To ask about objects, animals and people.
Ø What is she talking about?
To ask about places and directions.
Ø Where did you go last night?
To ask about the time of action.
Ø When is the Teacher’s Day?
To ask about people.
Ø Who gave you these sweets?
To ask about someone’s belonging.
Ø Whose wallet is this?
To find out the reason for an action.
Ø Why is she crying?
To find out the condition and the way things are done.
Ø How did you find out that she was lying?
To ask about selection.
Ø Which dress will you be wearing?
To refer to a person. It is used as the object of a verb.
Ø Whom are you looking at?
2. Singular and Plural Nouns
Singular Nouns denote one person, animal, place or object.
Plural Nouns denote more than one person, animal, place or object.
A) By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending with vowel sounds (a,e,i,o,u).
B) By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending with consonant sounds (b,c,d,t…).
C) By adding ‘es’ to nouns ending in ‘s’, ‘x’, ‘ch’ or ‘sh’.
D) By changing ‘y’ into ‘ies’ to nouns ending in ‘y’ with a consonant sound before it (b, c, d, t…).
E) By adding ‘es’ to nouns ending in ‘o’.
F) By changing the inside vowel of a noun.
G) The spelling is completely changed or remains the same.
3. Personal Pronouns
A pronoun is a word used to replace the names of people, animals or objects.
A) Personal Pronouns used as subjects:
I am going to Singapore next week.
We are good friends.
You need to tidy your room now.
He likes to go fishing every Sunday.
She is a friendly girl.
It is my favourite book.
They go to school by bicycle.
B) Personal Pronouns used as objects:
You must tell me the truth.
My dad took us to Disneyland last year.
I told you not to open the parcel.
I saw him at the cinema yesterday.
We helped her to repair the bicycle.
They gave it some food to eat.
Please get them some drinks.
A) ‘A’ is used for words which begin with consonant sounds (b, c, d, f…)
Examples : box, donkey, girl, horse, jug, key, lid, nest, pail, queue, rod, ship, train, vase, window, xylophone, yacht.
B) ‘An’ is used for words which begin with owel sounds (a, e, i, o, u) or a silent ‘h’ sound.
Examples : ant, axe, eagle, egg, election, interview, Indian, idol, orange, onion, umbrella, hour, heir, honest.
C) The is used :
i. To show a particular person or object.
Examples : The children are going to the library.
ii. To show something which is only one of its kind.
Examples : The moon is shining brightly.
iii. To show adjectives in superlative form.
Examples : She is the tallest girl in my class.
iv. Before names of rivers, oceans and particular places.
Examples : We live near the Perak River.